Monday, 28 November 2011

New Technologies in Film Industries.

Research 1

Monday, 14 November 2011

Technical Convergence and Attack the Block.

1. Production!

This is probably the least important stage in terms of technical convergence, however it is still important in order for the film to work successfully. At the stage of production technical convergence in the form of mobiles, laptops, pads etc. is used by the creative and production crew in order to stay in touch and communicate with each other. Electronic organisers are also used in order for people to remember where they need to be at certain times.

2. Distribution!

At this stage, technical convergence is used for the marketing campaign. It will rely on several things in order to make the film more successful. Mobile phones will be used in order to have advertisements being sent through sms. As well as that, having internet on mobile phones means all of the websites with trailers, official websites and social networks with advertisements are accessible in that way as well. Then there are ofcourse the main computers, laptops and pads. The internet on them also enables the audience to access trailers, official websites, social network pages, interview videos, information and reviews and that is all used to promote the film, give people more information and get them more involved so at the end they are more likely to spend money to go see the film or buy merchandise. This is all part of digital distribution. Another very common way of it are trailers in the cinemas. Attack the Block has several trailers, interviews, posters, official website and social network pages that are accessible.

3. Exhibition!

The final stage is exhibition and this is all about digital projection. This is the stage when the fiolm gets released in the cinemas and people pay money to go see it. However technical convergence involves other ways of exhibiting a film. A lot of people can not afford it, so they choose to purchase cheap, lower quality pirate versions. Others are even more illegal and sneaky and they manage to even download it or watch it online for free. People who prefer to spend their nights indoors and want to see a new film can purchase it through payperview, for example on Sky. Finally, the true fans of the film, the people who missed it in the cinemas or just people who see it on the shelves; purchase it in the form of DVD and Blue Ray. Technical convergence also involves some films being released as games and people buying them. Attack the Block was released on Blue Ray and DVD and a game for it was also released in the App Store.

Thursday, 10 November 2011

Attack the Block, Marketing Campaign!

Attack the Block

Thursday, 3 November 2011

Universal Studios!

Universal Studios or Universal Pictures began in 1912 and was founded by Carl Laemmle, however it began major production from 1915. The president and the chief operating officer is Ron Meyer. It is one of the oldest continuously operating production and film studios and it is actually the second-longest-lived in Hollywood. It is subsidiary of NBCUniversal, which is a division of Comcast and General Electric.Universal has quality production, post production and special events services and facilities in a controlled environment. The studio welcomes feature films, short films, television, commercials, independent films, music videos, still shoots, new media and special events. Each department boasts award-winning talent and experienced staff. The variety of departments have vast inventories and state-of-the-art equipment. The studio ensures excellent customer service including flexible package deals to get your project completed on time and within budget. Universal offers the convenience of one-stop shopping for all your production and post-production needs. Universak Pictures is the larges film and television studio in the world, with 9,000 employees.

"E.T the Extra Terrestrial."
*Released in 1982.
*Directed by Steven Spielberg.
*Written by Melissa Mathison.
*Produced by Steven Spielberg and Kathleen Kennedy.
*Main cast include Henry Thomas, Drew Barrymore and Peter Coyote.
*Production companies are Universal picture and Amblin Entertainment.
*Distributed by Universal Pictures and United International Pictures.
*Budget of the film is estimated to be $10,500,000.
*On the opening weekend it made $11,835,389.
*Total Gross Revenue is $359,197,037.

“The Skeleton Key.”
*Released in 2005.
*Directed by Iain Softley.
*Written by Ehren Kruger.
*Produced by Iain Softley, Daniel Bobker, Michael Shamberg and Stacey Sher.
*Main cast include Kate Hudson, Peter Sarsgaard and Joy Bryant.
*Production companies involve Universal Pictures, ShadowCatcher Entertainment and Double Feature Films.
*Distributed by Universal Pictures.
*Budget of the film is estimated to be $43,000,000.
*On the opening weekend it made £769,698.
*Total Gross Revenue is $47,907,715.

“The Holiday.”
*Released in 2006.
*Directed by Nancy Meyers.
*Written by Nancy Meyers.
*Produced by Nancy Meyers and Bruce A. Block.
*Main cast include Cameron Diaz, Kate Winslet, Jude Law and Jack Black.
*Production companies are Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, Relativity Media and Waverly Films.
*Distributed by Universal Pictures and United International Pictures.
*Budget of the film is estimated to be $85,000,000.
*On the opening weekend it made $12,778,913.
*Total Gross Revenue is $63,224,849.

“Dead Silence.”
*Released in 2007.
*Directed by James Wan.
*Written by Leigh Whannell.
*Produced by Mark Burg, Oren Koules and Gregg Hoffman.
*Main cast include Ryan Kwanten, Amber Valletta and Donnie Wahlberg.
*Production companies are Universal Pictures, Twisted Pictures and Evolution Entertainment.
*Distributed by Universal Studios and Universal Pictures.
*Budget of the film is estimated to be $20,000,000.
*On the opening weekend it made $7,842,725.
*Total Gross Revenue is $16,809,076.

“Cowboys and Aliens.”
*Released in 2011.
*Directed by Jon Favreau.
*Screenplay written by Roberto Orci, Alex Kurtzman, Damon Lindelof, Mark Fergus and Hawk Ostby.
*Produced by Brian Grazer, Ron Howard, Alex Kurtzman, Damon Llindelof, Roberto Orci and Scott Mitchell Rosenberg.
*Main cast include Daniel Craig, Harrison Ford and Olivia Wilde.
*Production Companies involve Universal Pictures, DreamWorks SKG, Reliance Enterntainment and Relativity Media.
*Distributed by Universal Pictures and Paramount Pictures.
*Budget of the film is estimated to be $163,000,000.
*On the opening weekend it made $36,431,290.
*Total Gross Revenue is $100,228,766.

Monday, 31 October 2011

Big Talk Productions!

Big Talk Productions began in 1995. It was founded by producer Nira Park and the Managing Director is Matthew Justice. It is an English TV and Film Production Company that is located in London.

It has produced several films:

"Shaun of the Dead."
*Released in 2004.
*Directed by Edgar Wright.
*Written by Simon Pegg and Edgar Wright.
*Produced by Nira Park.
*Main cast are Simon Pegg, Nick Frost and Kate Ashfield.
*Production companies involve Big Talk Productions and Universal Pictures.
*Distributed in the UK by United International Pictures and Universal Home Entertainment.
*Budget of the film is estimated to be £4,000,000.
*In the UK on the opening weekend it made £1,603,410.
*Total Gross Revenue is $13,542,874.

"Hot Fuzz"
*Released in 2007
*Directed by Edgar Wright.
*Written by Edgar Wright and Simon Pegg.
*Produced by Nira Park, Tim Bevan and Eric Fellner.
*Main cast are Simon Pegg, Nick Frost and Martin Freeman.
*Production companies involve Big Talk Productions and Universal Pictures.
*Distributed in the UK by Universal Pictures International and Universal Home Entertainment.
*Budget of the film is estimated to be £8,000,000.
*On the opening weekend it made £5,918,149.
*Total Gross Revenue is $23,637,265.

"Scott Pilgrim vs. the World."
*Released in 2010.
*Directed by Edgar Wright.
*Written by Michael Bacall and Edgar Wright. 
*Produced by Edgar Wright, Marc Platt, Eric Gitter and Nira Park.
*Main cast are Michael Cera, Mary Elizabeth Winstead and Kieran Culkin.
*Production companies involve Big Talk Productions and Universal Pictures.
*Distributed in the UK by Universal Pictures International.
*Budget of the film is estimated to be $60,000,000.
*On the opening weekend it made $10,609,795.
*Total Gross Revenue is $31,524,275.

*Released in 2011.
*Directed by Greg Mottola.
*Written by Nick Frost and Simon Pegg.
*Produced by Nira Parc, Tim Bevan and Eric Fellner.
*Main cast are Simon Pegg, Nick Frost and Seth Rogen.
*Production companies involve Big Talk Productions and Universal Pictures.
*Distributed in the UK by Universal Pictures International.
*Budget of the film is estimated to be $40,000,000.
*On the opening weekend it made $13,043,310.
*Total Gross Revenue is $37,412,945.

"Attack the Block."
*Released in 2011.
*Directed by Joe Cornish.
*Written Joe Cornish.
*Produced by Nira Park and James Wilson.
*Main Cast are John Boyega, Jodie Whittaker and Alex Esmail.
*Production companies involve Big Talk Productions and Studion Canal.
*Distributed in the UK by Optimum Releasing.
*Budget of the film is estimate to be $13,000,000.
*On the opening weekend it made $1,133,859.
* Total Gross Revenue is $1,024,175.

Film Industry: Introduction!

                                      How Does a Film Get Made?

1. Idea:
This is the foundation for any film. Someone gets an idea to what they think could develop into a successful, popular and selling film. It is important to understand the genre you want the film to be and establish the narrative and the main characters. In order to do that the creator can usually write a short pitch to outline the main details.
2. Pre Production:
Once the idea is there, the next thing to do is to express it. This can be done with a script and a storyboard. The script ofcourse does not need to be a final version, but at least a rough draft of it is very important to present, as this will make it easier to explain what it is about and make it clearer whether the film is actually worth making. The storyboard is also very important, as by trying to create drafts of different scenes, the creator of the film will be able to see for himself if his idea is realistic and quality material. If the drafts are seen as successful, the next step is to think about the best location for the film, the director, the cast members, the props, the costumes, the special effects and the visual effects. It is very important to find a good location for the film and see whether suitable sets can be constructed. When it comes to choosing the cast members, it is not cheap to choose someone famous, but in most of the cases it will pay off, as the people will be more likely to go and see the film. The props and the costumes also have to be found, as without them the film will be boring and they have to be picked according to the content of the film. The creator needs to be realistic about the effects when it comes to adapting the film, as in some cases not everything can be made the way it is firstly planned.
3. Funding:
This is part of pre production and has to be decided along with it. It is not very easy to sell an idea to someone if you are new to the film making industry. A famous director like Steven Spielberg will have no problem with getting someone to fund his idea, as he had a lot of experience and his films have proven to be successful. However if the creator is sure in his idea and has thought it through and picked a good cast, it is a possibility that someone will agree to fund it, in the hope of making back more money then it was originally put into the film. The decision on the funding will influence the final decisions on location and the cast, as it will be clear what can be afforded and what can not. At this stage the story rights of the film are also decided.
4. Production:
This is the actual filmmaking process-cinematography. This is recording and shooting the raw elements for the final film. This is a quite long process and it usually takes several months. The director is usually in charge of controlling the whole process and everyone has to listen to him. The reason that the process takes so long is because all the lighting and cameras have to be checked and ready, all of the cast needs to have hair and make up done and they need to put their costumes on and finally what is very improtant is to shoot different scenes several times, so in the next stage the best ones can be chosen; also they need to be shot from different angles, to then be edited.
5. Post Production:
This is the stage where the whole film is assembled and put together by the film editor. This also takes quite a lot of time, as several months worth of footage has to be cut down to usually the length of about two hours. The best looking scenes have to be chosen and put together, sound effects and soundtracks have to be added and special and visual effects also have to be implemented. The titles of the film and the credits at the end are also factors that get made and put into the film at the stage of post production.
6. Marketing and Distribution:
Once the film is completely ready, the next stage is to make it known. This can be done in different ways. A very common way is to have film premieres, which for very high budget films even happen in different locations around the world. This is the chance for the audience to see the cast of the film and it often makes them want to see it more. This is also the chance for the cast to get together and see the complete film for the first time. Then there are trailers, posters and stands, which would be displayed in the cinemas. Trailers and interviews with the stars will be on TV and Radio. Trailers and adverts will be posted on internet on websites such as "youtube." Finally merchandising will be made for the films with higher budget, which will attract the audience for the film and help make more profit.
7: Exhibition:
This is the final stage. This is when the film is released in the cinemas for all of the audience to see. There will be ratings ofcourse, which means that children for example would not be able to see restricted films that are only suitable for adults. After the film is shown in the cinemas roughly for about a time period of a month depending on the success; it is released on dvd and blue ray for the audience to purchase it and again bring more profit to the makers. Some films even have video games made after them, which also helps to bring profit.

Thursday, 29 September 2011

How the Sound is used to create representations in the Diary of a Call Girl clip.

     Non diegetic sound of gong in the beginning of the scene is probably an end to a sound bridge, which is used to get audience's attention to what is happening. The non-diegetic sound is not used for a while, which shos that producers are trying to get the audience to feel how the characters do. Diegetic sound in the form of a dialogues shows the communication of the characters. Diegetic hard breathing of the woman in between her talking, emphasises that she feels nervous and awkward. The volume of the diegetic sound has been increased, so even the rustling of the envelope is loud, which also emphasises the awkwardness and indicates that this is a business transaction encounter. As the diegetic dialogue continues, the audience can identify that the boy feels nervous and uncomfortable, because he doesn't finish his sentences. The same goes for the woman, which in a way brings the characters closer together for the audience, as they are feeling the same emotions. The use of "oh" throughout the dialogue also shows the how the characters are nervous.
     The loud ambient sound of the door locking, highlights the vulnerability of the boy, as he's father is outside and can not help him. The following dialogue between boy and the woman is punctuated by awkward silences, which indirectly emphasises the boy's disability, by drawing the audience's attention to the unusual situation and the reason why he is there. The disability is treated like part of the narrative and is not used to get the audience to stare or feel too much pity for the boy at this point. The use of sound in combination with mise en scene, cinematography and editing helps to highlight disability, as being the main theme for this clip.
     The scene cuts to father being outside and the diegetic soundtrack of fast paced classical music, is the complete opposite of father's nervous feelings and fidgity behaviour. The diegetic sound effects of the car, father opening and closing car's window, father moving the car seat and accidently pressing the horn highlight that he is very anxious about his son, but also he is a bit bored, as the time goes slowly and he has nothing to do except for feeling "on the edge" all of the time.
     There is a non diegetic soundbridge soudntrack that begins with the father and transists into another scene with the boy and the woman. It is slow, mellow, harmonica tune and so it is reflecting their dialogue calming the mood down a bit. It also gets the audience to feel more pity for the boy's disability and emphasises that this is a very important scene, as he has never been touched before. The use of hamonica instrument helps to create a sad atmosphere. The soundtrack can also be described as sllightly seductive, which creates the romantic mood for the audience abd shows sexual tension and relationship between the characters. The audience can guess that the soundtrack will continue to develop in a seductive was, as the characters are about to have sex.

Monday, 26 September 2011

How does Editing help to construct the representation of disability in the Diary of a Call Girl clip.

      Continuity editing is used throughout the clip, to make the clip  more realistic and tghe editing more invisible for the audience. Hard cuts and shot-reverse shots are use to emphasise the conversation between the father, disabled son and the woman. The use of them helps to create awkwardness as the woman does not know whether to look at dad or the son. The awkwardness surrounding the disability is also highlighted when the close up of woman looking at the disabled boy cuts into the eyeline match medium shot of the father. The transitions also cut from high and low angle from point of view of the woman and the boy, highlighting that he is lower as he is sitting in a wheelchair. Two match on action of father picking his son up from the wheelchair and putting him on the bed, shows a seemless action, but also indicates the the disabled boy is helpless. Another eyeline match of the boy laying on the bed and looking at the woman locking the door, draws attention to the vulnerability feelings that he has. Short-reverse shot expresses quick pace and short dialogue conversation, which also shows the awkwardness due to disability, as there are a few silent moments.
     There is a cross cut from the boy and woman to the father and his van outside. Eyline match showspoint of view shot of the father looking at the house and the windows, showing how anxious the father is feeling about his son due to his disability and this also highlights tenderness in their relationship. There is a series of jump cuts of father's fidgity actions in the car, indicating his restlessness due to being worried about the boy. Match on action cuts of woman touching the boy and her helping him to take his shirt off, shows that although the situatoin is awkward, the woman is trying to get over it. Also the disability is representes through woman's slow and careful movements when she has anything to do with the boy.

Thursday, 22 September 2011

Analysing Camera work and it’s constructed representation of age in the „Monarch of the Glen” clip.
The scene starts with a dolly shot, so the audience can fully appreciate the hard, adult, labour work that the men are doing. Camera pans across the yard and medium, long, over the shoulder shot is used to establish the location of two youngsters and establish costumes. The casual clothing represents young age of the girl. Dolly shot goes into a close up of the girl sitting in the car to show the confusion on her face, as because of her young age, she doesn't know a lot about cars. A high angle wide shot is used to show the setting, as the young, inexperienced girl crashes into another car. Medium long shot shows the old headmaster and the crashed cars in the foreground, putting forward the conflict between young and old, and also highlighting the older age through costume and beard.
Pan/tilt shot is used to show the height difference between the girl and the man. The eye-level close up of the girl manipulates the audience into feeling sorry for her. The two shot also highlights how the older woman cares about and protects the young girl. A slightly low angle makes the men in their two shot look controlling and powerful. Another eye-level medium close-up is used ti out the audience into her vulnerable position. High angle, medium close up of the man shows how he is older and has power over the girl.
An establishing wide shot shows countryside with sheeo to emphasise the location. The use of rainbow increases the mood of the scene and the audience. A series of mid shots and close ups again show the adult hard work with tools. Tilt shot is used to reveal the close up of the two notes the girl leaves behind. Then pan is used to show the teddy bear. The pink, girly writing and the toy also help to express the young age of the girl. Slow zoom into a photograph on the mirror is used to emphasise the emotions of the girl; her being upset, over-reacting and packing to run away also indicates her young, teen age. Tult goes into the camera looking throught the door with a long show of the woman, giving the audience girl's feelings of being on the outside. Medium close up shows emotions of the woman putting emphasis on her age, as she acts like the girl's caring mother.
High angle, over the shoulder shot of the man puts the audience into his perspective. The following of the close up on his face, shows him feeling guilty about the girl. This also refers to the age, as he is portrayed as older, father-like character.

Monday, 19 September 2011

Analysising Mise en Scene and it’s constructed representation of age in the „Monarch of the Glen” clip.

Throughout the clip natural key lighting was used for the outside scenes. Low key lighting was used for the scenes inside with adults, emphasising their age through dislike of very bright light.
In the beginning of the clip we see men with tools of hard labour, enhancing their adult work which is not for young people. We see adults wearing smart workwear costumes, while youngsters costume is casual. This shows how the age difference influences fashion opinions and style and how costume plays an important role in identifying and showing the age difference to the viewers. The audience can see that the girl does not know a lot about cars and driving through her shy body language. Therefore in this scene, car is a very important prop, because it helps the audience divide the adults who drive with the young girl, who didn't have an oppertunity to learn about driving yet.
We can see recognize the headmaster through his smart clothing and his old age is also shown with style of beard and hair. The shaking and hiding behind others shows that the girl is young and childish. The older woman is blocking the girl, which shows the contrast between older age and youth, as the adult character protects the younger character. The office with wooden panelling and the style of interior represents old room that belongs to an old person. Brandy in decanter emphasises that the room is not ment for young people. 
 The girl running away shows that she is an immature child. Having the man order her around and telling her off before she ran away, establishes the age difference between them making him look like a strict parent. There is another scene showing men with tools, working hard and doing work that requires older age and experience that comes with it. In this scene the props in the form of tools are also very important, as they halp to establish the age difference by making the audience see that they are not the sort of things that would be used by young people.
Teddy bear, magazinez, pink lanters and writing with flowers make the girl seem feminine and childlike also putting emphasis on the colour pink being only for youngsters. Woman’s running shows she is worried and caring creating a mother-daughter relationship between her and the girl.

Thursday, 15 September 2011

Regional/National Stereotypes!

Although we are generally taught that stereotypical behaviour is not correct or polite and on opposite rather rude and discriminative, Media and Film consist on a variety of different stereotypes. In this post I am concentrating on Regional and National Stereotypes. In the pictures above I have shown a variety of different stereotypes of this topic. For example a fat American man with a burger, represents the way many American men are owerweight due to their liking of junk food. There is a french man in a beret holding a baguette, which represents how this a typical headwear for many french men and how french are known for their love of bread. There is a german man with a beer, as they have a lot of beer in germany. There is an indian woman with a headscarf, which is worn by many indians due to religious beliefs. There is a leprecon with a beer, which plays with irish legend and the famous Guiness beer. There is also a mexican in their traditional hat-Sombrero. There is also a russian man wearing a lot of warm clothing, as everyone usually associates Russia with very cold weather. There is a scottish man in a kilt, which reflects their tradition and finally a spanish man representing a bull fighter, which Spain is very popular for. The important thing to remember that these images are not representing all of the population for those images, as there are for example a lot of americans who have a very healthy diet or a lot of germans who don't drink at all. However the fact that we are instantly able to recognize a country from those images, makes them sterotypes, as they portray the image that people are used to create their associations from.

Key Concepts of Media Studies!

The Key Concepts of Media Studies are:
Media Language
Cinematography, Editing, Sound, Mise en Scene.
age, gender, ethnicity, sexuality, regional identity, ablity/disability, class/social status.
Types of audience.
Types of insitutions.
In the exam we will have to use our knowledge of media language to analyse a type of representation given. We will do a case study on two films and we will use it to answer a question based on audiences and insitutions.